When is the first recorded instance of someone dying for a principle?

When was death discovered?

DNA analysis identified the individuals, dated to approximately 430,000 years ago, as early Neanderthals — our evolutionary cousins — or their ancestors.

What is Freud’s death wish?

in psychoanalytic theory, a conscious or unconscious wish that another person, particularly a parent, will die. According to Sigmund Freud , such wishes are a major source of guilt, desire for self-punishment, and depression.

What are the 4 criteria for the principle of double effect?

Classical formulations of the principle of double effect require that four conditions be met if the action in question is to be morally permissible: first, that the action contemplated be in itself either morally good or morally indifferent; second, that the bad result not be directly intended; third, that the good

What is the principle of double effect explain?

This doctrine says that if doing something morally good has a morally bad side-effect it’s ethically OK to do it providing the bad side-effect wasn’t intended. This is true even if you foresaw that the bad effect would probably happen.

Who introduced the death instinct?


When Freud introduced his concept of the death instinct in Beyond the Pleasure Principle (1920) he solved three theoretical problems which could not be explained by the one drive theory: masochism, repetition compulsion and the negative therapeutic reaction.

Why do we have a death drive?

The death drive, according to Freud’s later writings (Beyond the Pleasure Principle, “The Uncanny”), explains why humans are drawn to repeat painful or traumatic events (even though such repetition appears to contradict our instinct to seek pleasure).

What is double effect in palliative care?

The principle of double effect is a rule of conduct frequently used to determine when a person may lawfully and ethically perform an action from which two effects will follow, one bad, and the other good.

Which of the following is an example of the principle of double effect?

Abortions when the mother’s life is in danger
In cases when saving the life of a pregnant woman causes the death of her unborn child – for example, performing an abortion when continuing the pregnancy would risk killing the mother – some people argue that this is a case of the doctrine of double effect.

What are the conditions that will determine the moral responsibility of a person over an act with unintended results?

Philosophers usually acknowledge two individually necessary and jointly sufficient conditions for a person to be morally responsible for an action, i.e., susceptible to be praised or blamed for it: a control condition (also called freedom condition) and an epistemic condition (also called knowledge, cognitive, or

Why is midazolam used for end of life care?

Midazolam is a commonly used benzodiazepine in palliative care and is considered one of the four essential drugs needed for the promotion of quality care in dying patients. Acting on the benzodiazepine receptor, it promotes the action of gamma-aminobutyric acid.

What is passive euthanasia?

Passive euthanasia: intentionally letting a patient die by withholding artificial life support such as a ventilator or feeding tube. Some ethicists distinguish between withholding life support and withdrawing life support (the patient is on life support but then removed from it).

What is the difference between terminal sedation and euthanasia?

In the case of terminal sedation, severe physical and psychological suffering prompt the physician to sedate the patient, whereas for patients requesting euthanasia, perceived loss of dignity during the last phase of life is often a major problem.

What is the injection given at end of life?

Morphine and other medications in the morphine family, such as hydromorphone, codeine and fentanyl, are called opioids. These medications may be used to control pain or shortness of breath throughout an illness or at the end of life.

What is an end of life pill?

The End of Life Option Act (PDF) is a California law that went into effect on June 9, 2016, and was updated on January 1, 2022. The act allows patients who have a terminal disease (with a life expectancy of six months or less) to request a life-ending drug prescription from their doctor.