Where can I find primary sources on mortars/artillery in world war one?

What mortars were used in ww1?

The progenitor of most present-day mortars is the Stokes mortar, designed in January 1915 by British weapons designer F.W.C. (later Sir Wilfred) Stokes and used in World War I. The Stokes mortar was portable, weighing 49 kg (108 pounds). It could fire up to 22 rounds per minute at a range of 1,100 metres (3,600 feet).

What was the most common artillery in ww1?

Two main types of artillery were used during World War I, light field artillery pulled by horses, and heavier guns, such as howitzers, moved by tractor and set up on strengthened panels on the ground.

What type of artillery was used in ww1?

Different types of weapons made up the artillery of WWI. Guns had a long barrel and shot almost directly at their target. Howitzers had a shorter barrel and a fired their projectiles in a curved trajectory. Mortars had a short barrel, a higher curved trajectory and were mainly placed in trenches.

What country has the most artillery in ww1?


Germany. Germany had the best artillery of all participating countries when the war began in 1914.

What are the 3 types of mortars?

Mortar for installing tiles comes in three basic types: Thin-set, mastic, and epoxy mortar.

What are the 3 types of artillery?

Artillery – Cannons

  • Guns – heavy weapons with long barrels to batter fortifications with shot at long range.
  • Howitzers – shorter barreled guns with “chambers” in the bores for smaller powder charges.
  • Mortars – short chambered pieces used for lobbing shells at great elevation into the fortifications of the enemy.

What is the most powerful artillery weapon?

Schwerer Gustav was the largest-calibre rifled weapon ever used in combat and, in terms of overall weight, the heaviest mobile artillery piece ever built. It fired the heaviest shells of any artillery piece.

Schwerer Gustav
Produced 1941
No. built 2
Mass 1,350 tonnes (1,490 short tons; 1,330 long tons)

What is the difference between artillery and mortars?

A mortar round has a very steep arc while the artillery round has a flatter trajectory. Another difference is that mortars fire rounds at slower speeds than artillery so they must be fired at a higher angle to achieve any range. Since then it has become a valuable tool for infantry units.

What is the strongest artillery in the world?

As both sides make extensive use of artillery to suppress the enemy position, the most lethal gun in either side’s arsenal is the Soviet-era 203 mm self-propelled 2S7 howitzer, which is purportedly also the most powerful gun in the world.

Why is artillery the deadliest weapon of WWI?

Artillery. Artillery was the most destructive weapon on the Western Front. Guns could rain down high explosive shells, shrapnel and poison gas on the enemy and heavy fire could destroy troop concentrations, wire, and fortified positions. Artillery was often the key to successful operations.

Who made the first artillery?

The cannon first appeared in China sometime during the 12th and 13th centuries. It was most likely developed in parallel or as an evolution of an earlier gunpowder weapon called the fire lance.

When was the first mortar invented?

Mortars were first developed in the 15th century and are likely to have been used during the siege of Constantinople in 1453. In the mid-19th century, the small portable Coehorn mortar was used along with larger mortars during the American Civil War.

Why did they use mortars in ww1?

Its Advantages Over Artillery

The chief advantage of the mortar was that it could be fired from the (relative) safety of the trench, avoiding exposure of the mortar crews to the enemy. Furthermore, it was notably lighter and more mobile than other, larger artillery pieces.

Did the US use mortars in ww1?

The Stokes mortar was a British trench mortar designed by Sir Wilfred Stokes KBE that was issued to the British and U.S. armies, as well as the Portuguese Expeditionary Corps, during the latter half of the First World War. The 3-inch trench mortar is a smooth-bore, muzzle-loading weapon for high angles of fire.

How many mortar shells were fired in ww1?

The shells are now harmless. About 1.5 billion shells were fired during the war here on the Western Front.

When was the mortar used in ww1?


The mortar was first introduced in 1915 as the Mortier de 240 mm CT (court de tranchee). It was a short barreled version which fired a 192 pounds (87 kg) bomb for 1,125 yards (1,029 m), using a propellant charge of 1 lb 9 oz (710 g). Its first major use was in the Champagne offensive of September 25, 1915.

What was the first mortar made of?

The first mortars were made of mud and clay, as demonstrated in the 10th millennia BCE buildings of Jericho, and the 8th millennia BCE of Ganj Dareh.

What did they use before mortar?

300 BC – 476 AD Romans

They used lime as a cementitious material. Pliny reported a mortar mixture of 1 part lime to 4 parts sand. Vitruvius reported a 2 parts pozzolana to 1 part lime. Animal fat, milk, and blood were used as admixtures (substances added to cement to increase the properties.)

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