The Constitution of the United States: Background material for the original, esp. the Bill of Rights?

What is the background of the Bill of Rights? The Bill of Rights derives from the Magna Carta (1215), the English Bill of Rights (1689), the colonial struggle against king and Parliament, and a gradually broadening concept of equality among the American people. Virginia’s 1776 Declaration of Rights, drafted chiefly by George Mason, was a …

What was president Ayub Khan’s plan on the eastern front during the Indo-Pakistan war of 1965?

What was the role of Ayub Khan in 1965 war? He launched Operation Gibraltar against India in 1965, leading to all-out war. However, with Soviet Union intervention in 1966, peace was negotiated and relations among the three nations improved. Domestically, Ayub subscribed to the laissez-faire policy of Western-aligned nations at the time. Which agreement was …

What is the context for Napoleon’s quote “[the Austrians] did not know the value of five minutes”?

What was Napoleon’s famous quote? There are but two powers in the world, the sword and the mind. In the long run the sword is always beaten by the mind. What did Napoleon do to Austria? Napoleon surrounded an Austrian army at the city of Ulm, compelled it to surrender (see Ulm, Battle of), and …

In U.S. military forces, did black soldiers suffer a heavy racial segregation during World War II?

The Army, Navy, and Marine Corps all segregated African Americans into separate units because of the belief that they were not as capable as white service members. Adding to this indignity, the Army frequently assigned White officers from the American South to command Black infantrymen.  Was the US Army segregated during WWII? African Americans served …

Who was the train conductor who threw Gandhi from a first class train coach in South Africa?

Who threw Gandhi off the train? Mahatma Gandhi was thrown off a train at the Pietermaritzburg railway station in South Africa in 1893, after a white man objected to him travelling in the first class coach. Gandhi spent nearly 21 years in South Africa practicing law, and adopting Satyagraha against the racist regime. Where was …